Zambia’s tourism sector has been identified as one of the key economic sectors for diversification of the economy. Government and key stakeholders recognize the potential the sector has in contributing to the economy through job creation, foreign exchange earning, contributions to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and other economic facets. The sector’s potential to contribute to the economy has not however been fully unlocked due to a number of impediments. Some of these include delays in policy and legislative reforms and administrative and structural reforms.

In February 2017, the Government of the Republic of Zambia launched the National Tourism Policy of 2015. The delayed launch of the policy was attributed to the interruptions in the review process, in the form of various national events such as the successive presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections and others. The aim of reviewing the policy was to present stakeholders’ views in light of the changing trends in the tourism sector and also to reposition the sector as one of the county’s major economic contributors. This followed the recognition and reclassification of the tourism sector from a social sector to an economic sector. The revised policy is aimed at ensuring the tourism sector contributes to job creation, foreign exchange earnings Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and poverty reduction through wealth creation. Additionally, the policy is meant to provide a strategic framework for sustainable tourism development intended to ensure the sector realizes its full potential (Ministry of Tourism and Arts, 2015).

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Situational Analysis  of Housing in Zambia

Currently like any other urbanizing country, the Zambian housing sector is experiencing challenges of shortages in decent  and affordable housing and the growth of unplanned settlements.  These shortages are mostly attributed to inefficiencies of the housing market to meet the housing demand, lack of sustainable housing finance and population increase. According to a study conducted by  Zambia Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (ZIPAR) in 2014, Zambia has a housing stock of 2,500,000 units and an annual housing production of 73,000 units which is below the expected  annual production of 222,000  units per year.  The current housing production has lead to  a housing deficit of 1,539,000 as at 2014  and failure to  increase housing production might lead into a deficit of 3,328,904 units by 2030. 

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Introduction Improving the performance of the electricity sector in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries is a long-standing agenda, going back to the 1990s (Besant-Jones 2006, Jamasb et al 2017, Kessides 2012). At that time, the electricity sectors in most African countries were state-owned and run as parastatals, and were characterised by low levels of access, unreliable service, high energy losses, capacity shortfalls, heavily subsidised pricing structures, poor financial performance of utilities and a lack of resources to improve and extend services.

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The Seventh National Development Plan departs from sectoral-based planning to an integrated (multi-sectoral) development approach under the theme “Accelerating development efforts towards the Vision 2030 without leaving anyone behind”. The integrated approach recognises the multi-faceted and interlinked nature of sustainable development which calls for interventions to be tackled simultaneously through a coordinated approach to implementing development programmes. Through the use of the integrated (multi-sectoral) development approach, the 7NDP has the advantage of considering the comparative and competitive advantages of the regions in allocation of resources towards implementation of the multi-sectoral strategies and setting in motion a series of mutually supporting activities in different sectors with the general objective of delivering the national agenda. Ultimately it is envisaged that the integrated development approach in the 7NDP will help change the focus of government line ministries and provinces from competing with each other to coordinated harmonisation (working together).

 

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Over time, it has been realized that citizens’ negative mindsets are some of the key national constraints to development and social transformation in many nations. Growth of any country’s economy is only possible if citizens play their various roles and responsibilities diligently. The wealth of society is created by the collective efforts of citizens who include workers, farmers, intellectuals and entrepreneurs, among many others. If citizens do not have a culture of hard work and sacrifice, there would be minimal economic progress the country can make in spite of progressive policies. Experience has shown that countries with an entrenched culture of hard work develop faster. In view of this, the President of the Republic, His Excellency Mr. Edgar C Lungu, during the official opening of the second session of the Twelfth National Assembly of Parliament emphasized on the need for a “change of mindset” in order for the country to achieve aspirations in the Seventh National Development Plan (7NDP 2017-2021) . This analysis focused on the role of mindset in the implementation of the 7NDP whilst also depicting the need for a mindset education Programme in Zambia.1

  1. Summation from Dictionaries

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Introduction

Education is key to driving a nation’s development agenda and has always been given high priority in Zambia. Government education policymakers around the world are increasingly aware of the positive relationship of Early Childhood Education (ECE) on a child’s further development. Several countries have implemented reforms of their early childhood systems, generally focusing on a strong emphasis on education and preparations for school (Bertram .T, 2016).

In 2014, Zambia commenced with the provision of early education in Government schools, which was previously private or church owned, with centres mainly located in urban areas. This document, provides the status of early childhood education in Zambia, following its integration into the education system. Its main focus will be on the curriculum put in place and current enrolment statistics by province. It further highlights Government’s efforts in improving ECE as well as lessons learnt from best practices.

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Introduction

The Agriculture sector is one of Zambia most important economic sectors. The sector supports the livelihood of approximately 70% of Zambians and accounts  for around 10% of  Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Activities in the sector are guided by a sectorial policy, the First being the 2004 – 2015 National Agricultural Policy (NAP).  The First NAP 2004 – 2015 focused on improving production in the Agriculture sector. During the first NAP period, production increased significantly in all the agricultural sub-sectors as revealed in Situational Analysis, however, there was minimal improvement in productivity. The lack of investment in Research and Development (R&D), technology and weak extension services have been identified as key factors affecting productivity.

The launch of the Second National Agricultural Policy (NAP) 2016 -2020 seeks to address the challenges faced during the implementation of the First NAP.  The Second NAP has shorter duration of 5 years compared to the First NAP that ran for 12 years. The shorter duration conforms to standard policy durations of 5 years, further, the reduced time periods provides for better monitoring and evaluation (M&E).  The Second NAP focuses on ten strategic objectives that include objectives promoting productivity, promoting R&D, strengthening training, promoting markets (inputs and outputs), private sector participation, nutrition and food security.

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On the 3rd of  March 2017, Zambia finally launched the long-awaited National Climate Change Policy aimed at stemming the impact of climate change and subsequent reduction of the country’s annual economic growth due to crop failure and the impact of climate change on energy production.

The National Climate Change Policy is an important policy development that introduces a well-structured and coordinated national strategy to effectively tackle the adverse effects of climate change. The policy is driven by the Ministry of  National Development and Planning, represents a document that was developed through a broad based consultative process involving all key stakeholders to ensure stronger collaboration among the ministries that have a role to play in climate change mitigation and adaptation, and special consideration towards vulnerable groups such as poor rural women, children and the youth in Zambia.

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